Questionnaire Analysis


In order to explore the public's awareness and demand for the development of new energy from genetically modified microalgae, this article uses a questionnaire survey, based on the user questionnaire data collected in the online survey in the survey, and passes reliability, validity tests, project analysis, and independent chi-square tests. Other statistical methods test the rationality of the questionnaire and prove that the survey results are true and credible.

Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, descriptive statistical methods are used to analyze the basic information of users, combined with Maslow’s demand theory, a user demand model based on the CRITIC weighting method is established to study the user’s acceptance of genetically modified microalgae and its products. The relationship between the various levels of needs. Analyze the user's acceptance according to the user demand model, use the K-means cluster analysis method to mine potential users, and deeply explore the value of the four potential users and their personalized characteristics.

Finally, two conclusions of this article are given: in the analysis of user needs, it is found that the user's demand for genetically modified microalgae and its products is mainly derived from safety needs and emotional needs; out of potential user mining, it is believed that enterprises need to focus on developing high education. Or potential users such as middle-aged and elderly people with rich experience. According to the analysis of the questionnaire, this article also proposes corresponding product development suggestions and strategies.


Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of molecular biology and the improvement of genetic engineering, biomass energy has sprung up, and has continuously expanded its proportion in the energy structure. Bio-oil production is its main development direction. The third-generation bio-oil production uses microalgae to produce bio-oil, which has the advantages of sustainability, carbon sequestration and emission reduction, strong stability, and high safety. Among them, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, as a marine model diatom with short growth cycle, easy cultivation, and high oil content, can accumulate 20% to 30% of its own fat. It is a potential biodiesel resource algae species. Phaeodactylum as a culture substrate, using synthetic biology to increase the expression of oil-producing genes, can provide a novel direction for the industrialization of bio-oil production, promote low-carbon and environmentally friendly life, help the green development of the whole society, and contribute to my country's carbon neutrality strength.

However, genetically modified microalgae and their new energy products, as emerging products, will inevitably be questioned by the public. The public's unknown acceptance of microalgae may become a major obstacle to the development of microalgae. Therefore, by issuing questionnaires to the public for investigation and analysis, to study the public's understanding and acceptance of microalgae products, and then analyze the needs of users, and provide certain references and suggestions for the future direction of microalgae products and publicity methods.

Investigation Plan and Implementation

Investigation Plan

(1) Purpose of Investigation
Collect the public's understanding of the development of new energy by genetically modified microalgae, and collect the basic information of the surveyed persons, including data such as gender, age, occupation, education, permanent city, etc., and analyze the degree of understanding of different groups of microalgae.
Collect the user's motivation to use new bio-energy, microalgae products, and genetically modified products in the survey, and analyze the public's acceptance of the three types of products.
Collect users' attitudes and emotional components of new energy, microalgae, and genetically modified products to provide a certain reference for product promotion and future promotion.
(2) Investigation Method
Affected by the new crown epidemic, this questionnaire survey uses the questionnaire star platform, replacing traditional paper questionnaires with online survey electronic questionnaires. Jump questions are set in the electronic questionnaires to effectively target different groups of people with different questioning methods, eliminating data entry links and avoiding A typographical error occurred.
(3) Survey Item
This survey mainly studies the public's awareness and demand analysis of genetically modified microalgae. The survey is divided into three dimensions: cognitive component, emotional component, and behavioral component. The cognitive component is the understanding and knowledge of something; emotion; The component is the preference for something; the behavior component is the expectation and intention of the future behavior or state. Corresponding survey questions are set through these three dimensions, the respondents are considered, and the survey framework of the questionnaire is constructed as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Questionnaire Design Framework

Investigation Implementation

(1) Investigation Organization
Beginning in January 2021, we have conducted full team discussions and determined the content and purpose of the survey: to study the public's understanding and demand for the development of new energy sources of genetically modified microalgae, and initially designed the content of the questionnaire. From February to April 2021, we conducted a two-month pre-survey. By analyzing the pre-survey data, we screened out unqualified questions and replaced them, thereby improving the questionnaire. After confirming the formal questionnaire, we began to formally release the questionnaire to the public, and planned the time for questionnaire collection, data analysis, and report writing.
Fig.1 Time Progression Diagram

(2) The Quality Control
In the formal questionnaire given, we set up a set of jump questions. Starting from the question "Do you know something about microalgae?", according to the different answers of users, two different sets of survey questions are given. This measure can It effectively distinguishes user categories and is more targeted. Conducting research in the form of electronic questionnaires can reduce the cost of printing and binding paper questionnaires.

Pre-survey Data Testing

Credit Analysis

Reliability refers to the reliability or consistency of the measurement results. The higher the reliability, the more consistent or stable the measurement results. This questionnaire uses the analysis based on Kronbach’s Alpha coefficient method for reliability analysis. When the Alpha coefficient is greater than 0.7, the sample reliability is high. We divided the questionnaire into three aspects: bio-new energy, algae products, genetically modified technology, etc. to ask questions for users. Among them, two sets of questioning methods were set up in algae products, and SPSS software was used to check the reliability of different users. Consistency of the scale.
Table 2 Reliability Test
It can be clearly seen from the table that the coefficients of new bio-energy, algae products, and genetically modified technology are all greater than 0.8, and the questionnaire has high reliability.

Validity Test

Validity refers to the degree to which a measurement tool or means can accurately measure the things to be measured, and exploratory factor analysis is used to test the validity. The validity test is mainly divided into two steps:
Step 1: Perform KMO measurement and Bartlett ball test to check whether the data can be used for factor analysis;
Step 2: Rotate the factor analysis to obtain the factor load value of each option, and calculate the cumulative variance to explain the overall variance.
The KMO measure is used to check the partial correlation between variables, and the value is between 0-1. The closer the KMO value is to 1, the stronger the partial correlation between variables and the better the effect of factor analysis. KMO value above 0.9 is very suitable for factor analysis, above 0.8 is suitable for factor analysis, above 0.7 is acceptable, above 0.6 is acceptable, above 0.5 is not suitable, and below 0.5 is very unsuitable. In actual application, above 0.7, the effect is better; below 0.5, it is not suitable to apply factor analysis. [1]
The Bartlett sphere test is used to judge whether the correlation matrix is ​​a unit matrix, that is, whether each variable has a strong version correlation. P<.05, does not obey the sphere test, and the assumption that each weight variable is independent should be rejected, that is, there is a strong correlation between the variables; when P> .05, the sphere test is obeyed, and the variables are independent of each other, so factor analysis cannot be done.
Table 3 KMO and Bartlett Test

The above table is the result of the validity test. The KMO value of the four variables is between 0.7-0.9, and the validity result is excellent. The P value is all < 0.05, and there is a strong correlation between the variables. Therefore, the structure classification of the scale is reasonable.

Project Analysis and Inspection

Item analysis can test the distinction of each item in the scale. Specifically, it is to test whether some of the surveyed objects can give high scores in the scale, and some surveyed can also give high scores in the scale. A low score means that each item in the scale has better distinguishability. The essence is to explore the differences in each item of subjects with high and low scores.
Take the question of "Your Attitudes to Biodiesel" as an example for project analysis. There are 5 options in the question. The answer to each option is set from "strongly disagree-strongly agree" to 1-5 points, and the setting is less than 27%. Those with higher than 73% are classified as low groups, and those with higher than 73% are classified as high groups. The item analysis test is performed, and the results are shown in the table. The significance level of the high and low groups is P< 0.05, indicating that the setting of questions has a higher degree of discrimination and can distinguish the attitudes of different respondents. At the same time, the project analysis of other topics is passed, that is, the questionnaire has a good degree of discrimination and discrimination.

Table 4 Subjective Attitude

Chi-square Independent Test

The independence test can be used to determine whether the two variables are related to each other or independent of each other. Taking the two variables of "Do you know anything about algae products?" and "Will you recommend family members, relatives or friends to use algae products" as an example, perform a chi-square independence test. The hypothesis test questions are:
H0: Two variables are unrelated
H1: Two variables are related
Table 5 Chi-square Independent Test

The progressive significance is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis can be rejected, indicating that there is a correlation between the two variables, that is, people who know about algae are likely to recommend algae products to people around them. As a result, by performing chi-square independence tests on other variables in turn, it can be found that there is a correlation between most of the variables.

Data Processing and Analysis

Data Statistics and Processing

(1) Data Output
Through the questionnaire star platform, the user's detailed information can be exported to an excel file. In the exported data file, according to the order of the options, the user's answer to each question is shown in numerical order from small to large.
(2) Data Cleaning
Exclude the samples that did not complete the required answers, that is, the samples that did not complete the questionnaire;
According to the user's submission time, the samples with too short or too much response time will be eliminated.

Descriptive Statistics

(1) Age Distribution of Sample Persons

Fig.2 Age Distribution Map

Among the interviewees, six age groups were covered. The survey population is mainly concentrated between the ages of 18 and 25. At the same time, this group of people is also the main recipient and consumer of emerging things. Their attitude and acceptance of genetically modified microalgae to develop new energy sources can reflect the development trend of the industry in the next few years to a certain extent.
(2) The distribution of academic qualifications of the sample

Fig.3 Educational Qualifications Distribution Map

Among the respondents, there are a total of 7 academic backgrounds, and the majority of them have a bachelor's degree or above. The specific account is as shown in the figure above. In the surveyed population, undergraduate and above accounted for the majority. This population has more relevant knowledge and can give a more correct judgment on the new energy of microalgae. The data can well represent the high-level knowledge of the population of genetically modified microalgae. Attitude to produce new energy.
(3) Occupation distribution of sample personnel

Fig.4 Occupation Distribution Map

For the investigators, the CCP includes eight types of occupations, of which students account for the majority. In all occupations, the understanding rate of microalgae in all occupations, except for state agencies, party organizations, and public institutions, has reached 58%, and the understanding rate of microalgae in other occupations is less than 50%, and the average understanding rate is only 39.9%. The lack of understanding of algae may affect the promotion of the microalgae industry.

User Behavior Analysis Based on Demand Hierarchy Model

Hierarchy of Needs

According to Maslow’s "Needs Theory", the most basic human needs are divided into five levels: physiological needs, safety needs, emotional needs, respect needs, and self-realization needs. We combine the information available in the questionnaire with these needs One-to-one correspondence. [2]

First, physiological needs, as the first demand that arises, when facing a new thing, you first need to have a basic understanding of him, which can be described in the questionnaire as knowledge of genetically modified microalgae products, which is beneficial to users Go choose microalgae products.

Second, safety requirements. When users choose genetically modified microalgae products, they will first have questions about their health and require the products to be safe. Therefore, they are described in the questionnaire as the safety and nutritional value of the product.

Third, emotional needs. Out of the needs of emotion, friendship and belonging, the public often needs to communicate with relatives, friends, colleagues and other relationships to obtain corresponding emotional supplements. Therefore, we describe this need in the questionnaire as Are you willing to share genetically modified microalgae products with your relatives and friends?

Fourth, respect needs. For this purpose, users hope to get the attention of others and the recognition of the society. This is reflected in that the users themselves have high professional knowledge of microalgae products, and they have a strong influence on obtaining more knowledge. interest.

Fifth, self-realization needs, as the highest level of needs in the theory of needs, when people meet other needs, they will pursue self-realization, that is, they can have a certain impact on the society, which can be reflected in the questionnaire as users Evaluate the current social phenomena of microalgae products and look forward to their future development trends.

Demand Model

(1) CRITIC Method to Calculate Weight
In order to study what kind of demand among the five major needs when users are willing to accept genetically modified new energy products.

By analyzing the degree of influence of the topic on the user's degree of product demand, the CRITIC weight method is used to measure the objective weight of the topic, and the variability of the topic is considered while taking into account the correlation between the topics. For example, the standard deviation is used to indicate the fluctuation of the value of each option. The larger the standard deviation, the greater the numerical difference of the option, the more information can be displayed, and the stronger the influence of the option itself. The correlation coefficient is used to indicate the correlation between indicators. The stronger the correlation with other options, the less conflicting this option with other options, the more the same information is reflected, and the weaker the option to a certain extent. Influence。

Therefore, first select the options related to the people’s demand for the product in the questionnaire, such as "Will you recommend family members, relatives or friends to use algae products?" It has great prospects for application in the food, medical, and industrial fields." The higher the value of these options, the higher the acceptance of the product by the masses. The lower the value, the lower the acceptance of the product by the masses. The larger the standard deviation, the greater the numerical difference of the option, and the greater the influence of the choice of the option on whether to accept algae products. The larger the correlation coefficient, the more the same information it reflects with other options, which means that the choice of this option has less influence on whether to accept the product. Therefore, considering the two factors, the amount of information is calculated and the weight is obtained. Specific steps are as follows:
The weight calculation results are shown in Table 6:
Table 6 The Weight of the Five Major Needs

(2) User Acceptance Prediction

User Behavior Analysis

Different users will always have a certain kind of demand occupying an important position at different stages of life, which will dominate their personal behavior. Explore the user scores corresponding to each need level, and it can be found that the two most important sources of user scores are security needs. And emotional needs.

In the data set, 66.48% of users’ scores mainly come from safety requirements, that is, it is hoped that genetically modified microalgae and its products can meet their safety requirements. When the product meets the user’s safety requirements, the corresponding score will rise relatively. High, these users have a certain degree of recognition for the safety of genetically modified products, which is the fundamental reason why they choose genetically modified microalgae products.

At the same time, 24.73% of users’ scores are due to the satisfaction of their emotional needs. The most important reason why these users choose to accept genetically modified microalgae and its products is because of emotional communication with family, relatives or friends, and sharing products to promote Mutual communication.

In addition to this, there are other users who choose to accept genetically modified microalgae products out of physiological needs, respectful needs, and self-realization needs. Self-actualization needs are the most advanced needs in Maslow's theory, and accordingly fewer people choose products out of this need.
Fig.5 User Needs

Potential User Mining Model Based on Cluster Analysis

Potential User Definitions

In the questionnaire setting, in order to strengthen the pertinence of the questionnaire, we set up a jump question for users who have different answers based on the question "Do you know anything about algae products?" Among users, dig out potential users among them.

Through the above demand model, we can find a group of users who do not understand algae products, but are willing to accept algae due to various needs, and may become buyers and users of algae products in the future. Class group, we define as the potential user group that is most likely to be tapped at present.

Potential User Model

(1) Cluster Analysis Based on AGEPU
To perform cluster analysis on the questions of potential users in the questionnaire, the first choice is to select a clustering factor. We start from the characteristics of consumers, combined with the prediction of user demand models and do not understand the acceptance of algae products, and set five cluster analysis indicators: A, G, E, P, U
Table 7 Potential Task Indicaor Meaning Table

Analyze the collected user data, calculate the relationship between k and SSE, divide users into 5 categories, and perform cluster analysis through python.
Fig.6 The relationship between k and SSE

(2) The composition of potential users
The user data is clustered, and the clustering results are shown in Table 8.
Table 8 Clustering Result

Draw a radar chart of each category of users, and analyze the situation of the five categories of users on each attribute. From the figure, it can be found that each user group has significantly different performance characteristics: User group 1 is the largest in age and acceptance attributes. Occupation and gender attributes are the smallest; user group 2 has the largest acceptance attribute and the smallest in age attribute; user group 3 has the largest occupation and gender attributes and has the smallest education attribute; user group 4 has the largest education and gender attributes; users Group 5 has the smallest acceptance attribute.
Fig 6 Radar Map

Based on the feature description, this article defines four levels of user categories: important potential users, important development users, general users, and low-value potential users. The characteristics of each customer type are as follows:

1. Important potential users: Mainly the first group of people. The biggest feature is higher education and older age. The analysis may be college teachers or high-educated middle-aged and elderly people, who have rich experience and pay more attention to and understand the environment and other new energy knowledge. The acceptance of microalgae products is relatively high.

2. Important development users: mainly the second group of people. This group of people has high education, but is young, and most of them are college students receiving higher education. These users are in the new development force of society and have a high degree of acceptance of new things. , But the demand is not great, and it may develop into important potential users in the future.

3. General users: This type of user group is relatively complex, consisting of the third and fourth clusters. According to user characteristics, there are mainly two types of users, namely, freelancers, people with lower education levels, and younger male mass groups.

4. Low-value potential users: The fifth group of people is mainly male. This type of user has a high degree of education, and there is no feature that can be described more significantly different from other users for the time being.

Conclusions and Strategies

Research Conclusion

In this paper, the user data obtained through online questionnaires, starting from the user's cognitive components, emotional components, and behavioral components, in-depth research on the public's demand for genetically modified microalgae and its new energy products. The research viewpoints and conclusions of this article are as follows:

The user's demand for genetically modified microalgae and its products mainly comes from safety needs and emotional needs. On the one hand, when users believe that the safety of genetically modified microalgae and its products are up to standard, the corresponding acceptance will be high. This shows that in the sales process of genetically modified microalgae products, safety is the fundamental reason for users to choose products, and it is necessary for companies Strengthen the safety control of the product; on the other hand, due to the needs of emotional communication and interpersonal communication, users will also choose to recommend genetically modified microalgae and their products to their relatives and friends. Therefore, companies should improve on the level of emotional needs The publicity method can effectively expand the market scale of genetically modified microalgae products.

In tapping potential users, companies need to focus on developing middle-aged and elderly people with high education or rich experience. Such users are important customers receiving genetically modified microalgae and its products. At the same time, college students receiving higher education should be included in the next step of developing customers. , To prepare for the next promotion of genetically modified microalgae products.


(1) Expand Product Promotion Channels
Strengthen the popularization of science: Users’ low acceptance of genetically modified microalgae products is largely due to their lack of understanding of microalgae products and lack of knowledge of genetically modified technology. Companies should pay attention to the popularization of genetically modified microalgae products and get through system information. Dissemination channels, maintain mass media: such as TV, newspapers and periodicals, strengthen new media platforms such as WeChat public accounts, Weibo and other positions to promote, effectively supervise and control the dissemination of pseudo-scientific information, and ensure the strong credibility and credibility of product publicity authoritative.[3]

Focus on key groups: In the face of different groups' understanding of microalgae-related information and their willingness to demand, microalgae companies should focus on the cognitive differences of different groups of people and form a point-to-face information dissemination situation to improve the efficiency of publicity.[4]

Establish a publicity method oriented by emotional needs: In Maslow's demand model, users who can accept microalgae products are more in emotional needs. The general public often communicates with relatives, friends, colleagues, etc. for the needs of emotion, friendship and belonging. Microalgae products are used as a communication medium to allow users to obtain corresponding emotional supplements. At the current stage, strengthening the promotion of emotional needs can make users willing to share genetically modified microalgae products with their relatives and friends, thereby promoting the production and marketing of microalgae products.

(2) Ensure Product Safety and Improve Laws and Regulations
Improve the detection technology of microalgae products: Testing of genetically modified microalgae products is a necessary means to ensure their quality and safety. With the continuous development of genetically modified foods, countries and relevant international organizations are actively developing genetically modified product testing technologies. At present, the most mature technology for genetically modified products testing methods is PCR technology. Enterprises should build on various international and domestic technologies. Look for more accurate, faster and safer detection technologies, strengthen the safety assessment of genetically modified products, and allow users to use genetically modified microalgae products with confidence.

Improve relevant laws and regulations: To promote genetically modified microalgae products, it is necessary to strengthen the improvement of relevant laws and regulations, and strictly control the scientific use of genetically modified products and species. Not only must consumers’ legitimate rights and interests such as the right to know and the right to choose be reimbursed, but also attention must be paid to the control of microalgae. As algae harm the ecological environment, it is strictly forbidden for enterprises or factories to make operations that affect or even endanger the ecological environment system for profit.[5]


[1]. Zeng Wuyi, Huang Bingyi, Reliability and Validity analysis of questionnaire. Statistics and Information Forum, 2005(06): 13-17.
[2] zheng M, Research on food nutrition Education Needs of Urban and Rural Residents, 2021, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. On page 64.
[3]. Chen Guirong, Public Understanding and Acceptance of GM Food -- Investigation and analysis of Consumers in Kunming city. Journal of Kunming University of Science and Technology (Social Science Edition), 2005(04): 14-17.
[4] MAO Xinzhi, Wang Peipei and Zhang Meng, Investigation and Analysis of Public's Social Evaluation of GENETICALLY Modified Food in China -- Based on a questionnaire survey in Hubei Province. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University (Social Science Edition), 2011(05): 5-11.
[5] lv Ping, How to apply and promote GENETICALLY modified Food in a scientific and reasonable way -- Based on a questionnaire analysis of consumers' attitudes towards genetically modified food. Shopping Mall Modernization, 2015(07): page 30.


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