Team:IISER-Tirupati India



Why Contraceptive?

Source: WHO
Human Rights Symbol

Access to contraceptive advances right to life and liberty, freedom of opinion and expression and the right to work and education.

Maternal Mortality Symbol

Contraceptives prevent pregnancy-related health risks for women and adolescent girls. They also reduce maternal mortality and infant mortality rates across the world.

Symbol of sustainable population

Offers non-health benefits like expanded educational opportunities, empowerment for women, sustainable population growth for countries.

History Of Contraceptives




Advantages : The first written record of spermicide use is found in the Kahun Papyrus, an Egyptian document dating to 1850 BCE. It described a pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough.

Disadvantages : It increases the risk of urinary tract infections, causes irritation such as burning or itching. May also cause an allergic reaction.

Cartoonic representation of Spermicides


Cervical Caps

Advantages : It does not affect future fertility for either partner. It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse and safe to use while breastfeeding.

Disadvantages : The cervical cap does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Cartoonic representation of Cervical Caps


Tubal Ligation

Advantages : There are no significant long-term side effects, permanent method.

Disadvantages : ligation does not protect against STIs. There are possible surgery-related complications.

Cartoonic representation of Sterilization


Progestin-only Pills

Advantages : It has a high efficacy, independent of the act and timing of sexual intercourse and can be used for post-coital or emergency contraception.

Disadvantages : It has to be taken daily at almost exactly the same time, so that its efficacy depends on the user’s memory. An increase in the risk of breast cancer. Side effects may also include ovarian follicular cysts and irregular menstruation. Does not protect you against STIs.

Cartoonic representation of Pills.


Intrauterine Methods

Advantages : The IUD is highly effective, having a failure rate of less than 6 percent in the first year of use.

Disadvantages : Major health risks that have been associated with IUD use include pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, septic abortion, spontaneous abortion, and uterine perforation.

Cartoonic representation of Intrauterine device.


Barrier Methods
(Condoms, Diaphragms and Sponges)

Advantages : They may prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Disadvantages : The effectiveness of these methods is highly dependent on user motivation and compliance. As a result, average failure rates tend to be higher than for any other modern method of contraception.

Cartoonic representation of Condoms


Vaginal Ring

Advantages : It is convenient to use, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer risks are lowered. The occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is lower.

Disadvantages : Increased risk of breast or liver cancer, breast enlargement and discharge, or severe breast tenderness. Hypertension may develop, irregular bleeding or spotting, vomiting and loss of appetite is seen. Significant increase in body weight and depression.

Cartoonic representation of vaginal ring


Contraceptive Patch

Advantages : Highly effective if used properly, applied only once a week and not in relation to intercourse, Doesn't detach with exposure to water or sweat.

Disadvantages : It does not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Interacts with some medications. The estrogen levels are higher with the patch than with other hormonal methods.

Cartoonic representation of Patch

Current Situation Of Contraceptive Use

Pie chart of estimated no. of women of reproductive age using different methods of contraceptive methods
Figure 1. Estimated numbers of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) using modern and traditional contraceptive methods, having an unmet need for family planning and no need for family planning, worldwide, 2019
Pie chart of distribution of vatious contraceptive methods.
Figure 2. Estimated numbers of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) using various contraceptive methods, worldwide, 2019


Symbolic representation of side effects of contraceptive methods

Most of the popular current methods of contraceptives come with one or the other short/long term side effects for the consumer. Read more...

Symbolic representation of disturbance of aquatic ecosystem from birth control pills

From a birth control pill, only 10% of hormones are absorbed by the body, and 90% are excreted out. The primary and secondary packaging of the contraceptives also adds to the waste burden.

Symbolic representation of unintended pregnancies

About 22.2 million unintended pregnancies in 43 developing countries are due to contraceptive failure.

Symbolic representation of tubectomy.

In India, an irreversible procedure like female sterilisation is preferable for more than 75% of cases that take away the individual’s right to plan families.

Symbolic representation of survey conducted by WHO.

A study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 36 countries shows that two-thirds of sexually active women who wished to delay or limit childbearing stopped using contraception for fear of side effects, health concerns and underestimation of the likelihood of conception.

Can there be a solution?


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Engineering commensal


Production of ovum specific protease under hormonal regulation


Prevent fertilization


Kill switches for reversibility and biosafety

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