Access to contraceptive advances right to life and liberty, freedom of opinion and expression and the right to work and education.
Contraceptives prevent pregnancy-related health risks for women and adolescent girls. They also reduce maternal mortality and infant mortality rates across the world.
Offers non-health benefits like expanded educational opportunities, empowerment for women, sustainable population growth for countries.
History Of Contraceptives
Advantages : The first written record of spermicide use is found in the Kahun Papyrus, an Egyptian document dating to 1850 BCE. It described a pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough.
Disadvantages : It increases the risk of urinary tract infections, causes irritation such as burning or itching. May also cause an allergic reaction.
Advantages : It does not affect future fertility for either partner. It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse and safe to use while breastfeeding.
Disadvantages : The cervical cap does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Advantages : There are no significant long-term side effects, permanent method.
Disadvantages : ligation does not protect against STIs. There are possible surgery-related complications.
Advantages : It has a high efficacy, independent of the act and timing of sexual intercourse and can be used for post-coital or emergency contraception.
Disadvantages : It has to be taken daily at almost exactly the same time, so that its efficacy depends on the user’s memory. An increase in the risk of breast cancer. Side effects may also include ovarian follicular cysts and irregular menstruation. Does not protect you against STIs.
Advantages : The IUD is highly effective, having a failure rate of less than 6 percent in the first year of use.
Disadvantages : Major health risks that have been associated with IUD use include pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, septic abortion, spontaneous abortion, and uterine perforation.
(Condoms, Diaphragms and Sponges)
Advantages : They may prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Disadvantages : The effectiveness of these methods is highly dependent on user motivation and compliance. As a result, average failure rates tend to be higher than for any other modern method of contraception.
Advantages : It is convenient to use, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer risks are lowered. The occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is lower.
Disadvantages : Increased risk of breast or liver cancer, breast enlargement and discharge, or severe breast tenderness. Hypertension may develop, irregular bleeding or spotting, vomiting and loss of appetite is seen. Significant increase in body weight and depression.
Advantages : Highly effective if used properly, applied only once a week and not in relation to intercourse, Doesn't detach with exposure to water or sweat.
Disadvantages : It does not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Interacts with some medications. The estrogen levels are higher with the patch than with other hormonal methods.
Current Situation Of Contraceptive Use
Most of the popular current methods of contraceptives come with one or the other short/long term side effects for the consumer. Read more...
From a birth control pill, only 10% of hormones are absorbed by the body, and 90% are excreted out. The primary and secondary packaging of the contraceptives also adds to the waste burden.
About 22.2 million unintended pregnancies in 43 developing countries are due to contraceptive failure.
In India, an irreversible procedure like female sterilisation is preferable for more than 75% of cases that take away the individual’s right to plan families.
A study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 36 countries shows that two-thirds of sexually active women who wished to delay or limit childbearing stopped using contraception for fear of side effects, health concerns and underestimation of the likelihood of conception.