Team:IISER-Tirupati India

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Why Contraceptive?

Source: WHO
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Access to contraceptive advances right to life and liberty, freedom of opinion and expression and the right to work and education.

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Contraceptives prevents pregnancy-related health risks for women and adolescent girls. Also reduces maternal mortality and infant mortality rates across the world.

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Offers non-health benefits like expanded educational opportunities, empowerment for women, sustainable population growth for countries.

History Of Contraceptive

1850

BCE

Spermicide

The first written record of spermicide use is found in the Kahun Papyrus, an Egyptian document dating to 1850 BCE. It described a pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough.

1838

Cervical Caps

Advantages : It does not affect future fertility for either the woman or the man. It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse and safe to use while breastfeeding

Disadvantages : The cervical cap does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

1930

Tubal Ligation

Advantages : There are no significant long-term side effects, permanent method

Disadvantages : ligation does not protect against STIs. There are possible surgery-related complications.

1968

Progestin-only Pills

Advantages : It has a high efficacy, independent of the act and timing of sexual intercourse and can be used for post-coital or emergency contraception

Disadvantages : It has to be taken daily at almost exactly the same time, so that its efficacy depends on the user’s memory. An increase in the risk of breast cancer. Development of follicular ovarian cysts and regular menstruation cannot be expected. Does not protect you against STIs.

1970

Intrauterine Methods

Advantages : The IUD is highly effective, having a failure rate of less than 6 percent in the first year of use.

Disadvantages : Major health risks that have been associated with IUD use include pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, septic abortion, spontaneous abortion, and uterine perforation.

1980

Barrier Methods
(Condoms, Diaphragms and Sponges)

Advantages : They may prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Disadvantages : The effectiveness of these methods is highly dependent on user motivation and compliance. As a result, average failure rates tend to be higher than for any other modern method of contraception.

2001

Vaginal Ring

Advantages : It is convenient to use, Ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer risks are lowered. The occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is lower.

Disadvantages : Increased risk of breast or liver cancer, breast enlargement and discharge, or severe breast tenderness. Hypertension may develop, Irregular bleeding or spotting,Vomiting and loss of appetite is seen. Significant increase in body weight and depression.

2002

Contraceptive Patch

Advantages : Highly effective if used properly,. applied only once a week and not in relation to intercourse, Doesn't detach with exposure to water or swea

Disadvantages : It does not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Interacts with some medications. The estrogen levels are higher with the patch than with other hormonal methods

Current Situation

Figure 1. Estimated numbers of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) using modern and traditional contraceptive methods, having an unmet need for family planning and no need for family planning, worldwide, 2019
Figure 2. Estimated numbers of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) using various contraceptive methods, worldwide, 2019
Figure 6. Percentage share of contraceptive use for the most common method among women of reproductive age (15- 49 years), 2019

Problems

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Most of the popular current methods of contraceptives come with one or the other short/long term side effects for the consumer.

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From a birth control pill, only 10% of hormones are absorbed by the body, and 90% are excreted out. The primary and secondary packaging of the contraceptives also adds to the waste burden.

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About 22.2 million unintended pregnancies in 43 developing countries are due to contraceptive failure.

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In India, an irreversible procedure like female sterilisation is preferable for more than 75% of cases that take away the individual’s right to plan families.

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A study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 36 countries shows that two-thirds of sexually active women stopped using contraception due to fear side effects and underestimating the likelihood of conception.

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