Team:City of London UK/Attributions


Silver HP


Biology Team

  • Researched and identified two miRNA biomarkers upregulated in patients with Preeclampsia at 10 weeks, twice as soon as current methods allow.
  • Designed and characterised two design generations of toehold switches, including a novel AND-gate switch.
  • Designed a method for amplifying miR-210-3p and miR-517-5p isothermally.

Hardware Team

  • Designed and assembled a luminometer. Designed a magnetic bead-based miRNA extraction system.
  • The designed hardware utilises a luciferase assay to determine the result of our preeclampsia detection tests.

Software Team

  • Developed ToeholdTools, which contains an easy-to-use programmatic API for investigating the target RNA specificity of toehold switches.

Modelling Team

  • Using Hill-Langmuir equations, the Modelling Team developed a Mass Action Kinetics model to predict complex formation.
  • NUPACK and cost models were also developed to build on software and implementation aspects of the project.

Human Practice Team

  • Contacting multiple professionals to verify and improve our project.
  • Conducted surveys to collect data and understand methods to raise awareness about preeclampsia.
  • Delivered lessons to younger years to teach about DNA, genetics, and synthetic biology.
  • Created leaflets and developed an app to update people about the latest preeclampsia news.

Finance Team

  • Delivering project presentations and proposals to potential sponsors, the Finance Team raised donations to fund our project.
  • Helped with the Implementation section of the project, with their extensive knowledge on business and economics.


Mrs Waite

  • Mrs Waite took a pivotal role in our project. Without her help in preparing our wet lab equipment, project RIBOTOX would not have existed. We pay immense gratitude for all the time she spent both during term time and the holidays to assist our iGEM team.

Ms Tasnim

  • Ms Tasnim was crucial in the latter phase of our lab work. Despite the chaotic nature of our term-time lab work, our team managed to hold balance thanks to her involvement. Her unparalleled speed and accuracy in producing buffers and gels were instrumental in the successful completion of our lab work.


Dr Pattison

  • As the Head of Biology at City of London School, her support and guidance on aspects of Human Practices and Wet Lab were of great help to the team. We also thank her for lending her sacred incubator.

Mr Zivanic

  • As the ex-PI of the CLS iGEM team, his experience and knowledge in Synthetic Biology proved to be invaluable during our lab planning and troubleshooting phases. As the gaffer of the triumphant 2017 BATMAN team, he was a true role model for our team.


Dr Wooli Bae (Imperial College)

  • Working as a researcher at the Department of Bioengineering at Imperial College, his extensive knowledge on nucleic acid structures and cell free transcription/translation helped us decide on our in-vitro transcription method and kit. He was also of immense help in providing us an idea for our initial model.

Dr Ciara O’Sullivan

  • Helped with RPA protocols and kit preparation. See Integrated Human Practices for further details.

Dr Alex Green

  • Helped with Toehold Switch analysis and AND gate work. See Integrated Human Practices for further details.

Professor Basky Thilaganathan

  • Helped with Human Practices and medical advice. See Integrated Human Practices for further details.

Dr Anatoliy Markiv

  • Helped us with the characterization of our Toehold Switches. We also thank him for offering his lab with specialist equipment. See Integrated Human Practices for further details.


King's College London

  • See Integrated Human Practices for further details.

The Preeclampsia Foundation

  • Validated and proof checked our project.

BMG Labtech

  • Lent us a luminometer to test our characterised Toehold Switches at Dr Anatoliy’s KCL lab.

Integrated DNA Technologies

  • Their generous 20k base pair funding to iGEM teams helped us cut down on costs.


Yashaar Daad and Louis Gringras

  • As award winning iGEMers and ex-iGEM team Student Leaders, their experience allowed them to give crucial feedback during our project selection and finalisation process. We wish them the best of luck in their further studies.

Lucas Czajka and Isaac Tolley

  • As two key members of the 2020 CLS_CLSG_UK team, their honest feedback helped us develop our project. We wish them the best of luck in their further studies.


Mr Hennigan

  • As a keen Biotechnology investor, his generous funding played an irreplaceable role for our project. Without his support and trust, Project RIBOTOX would have met a dead end.

The John Carpenter Club

  • As the alumni association of the City of London School, their donation helped us purchase key lab equipment.

Lady Heywood

  • As a parent of our team member, and a knowledgeable investor, her donation was the first of many, which ignited the engine for our project.