Big Picture

# Proposed Implementation

All in all, *Arthrospira platensis* appears to have huge prospect of application in many areas of our lives. Team iGEM LMSU is contemplating developing a novel chassis organism, *Arthrospira platensis* for synthetic biology community. By suggesting a stable transformation protocol, optogenetic system and appropriate BioBricks for *Arthrospira platensis*, we believe, long-term ASCEND project will make a great impact in many areas and contribute research and innovations in work with this wonderful and perspective cyanobacteria.

## Directions of further development and implementation
### Biotechnological industrial processes
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We hope, that our optogenetic system will make a great impact in all aspect of biotechnology some way related to phototrophic prokaryotes and other bacteria, which live in the light. We are convinced, that it will optimise production of secondary metabolites and target proteins. In other words, the two-phase cultivation processes used nowadays which require two bioreactor areas will be replaced with separation of biomass accumulation and genes of interest production in time in just one bioreactor. ||

### Space
~|| Space agencies can introduce microalgae bioreactors into the life support system for astronauts on orbital stations and spacecraft. 

Some reasons for this:
- Spirulina reproduces itself
- Only a few kilograms of *Arthrospira platensis* are required to maintain the performance of the bioreactor
- *Arthrospira platensis* contains almost all the necessary nutrients for human diet (Sataloff, R. T., Johns, M. M., & Kost, K. M.,2002)
- Urine can be used as a substrate for cultivation of *Arthrospira platensis*
- *Arthrospira platensis* releases oxygen (as a byproduct of photosynthesis), the reserves of which are limited on the spacecraft
- *Arthrospira platensis* is able to grow in microgravity(!)
ASCEND project will complement the space food supply system as:
- *Arthrospira platensis* will be engineered to give piquancy to its biomass
- What is more important, production of flavouring genes will be controlled with certain wavelength
- *Arthrospira platensis* can also be engineered to produce melatonin, crucial for astronauts  |
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### Food industry
~|| Fashion superfood is a relatively young term, and most people perceive is that the food has a superior nutritional value, that the food is more natural or has not been processed. Thinking globally, it means a universal food source which will be able to replace any others. In this case *Arthrospira platensis* appears as a quite probable candidate due to its great protein and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids content, ratio of essential amino acids, biosafety and low price. ASCEND project will complement this area significantly by providing consumers with great variety of potential flavours and supplementing its biomass with absent nutrients.
- Another potential application of our project is accelerating of production of protein and oils for nutritional use. With a stable transformation protocol more complex regulatory elements and strong promoters can be inserted into *Arthrospira platensis* genome and, thus, increase production of particular genes and silence the others. |

### Medicine
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We also suggest using *Arthrospira platensis* as a delivery system of drugs, which was already implemented in the article by Jester et al (2021). By inserting the biosynthesis pathways in *Arthrospira platensis* genome, such steps in drug production as production, purification and packing of medical substances in form of pills and capsules will be avoided. ||

### Animal husbandry
~|| Nowadays, *Arthrospira platensis* has already been proposed as a food supplementary for livestock as it is rich in protein and can boost biomass accumulation. Although, with ASCEND project the nutritiousness of such food sources might increase greatly, and the ecological footprint in terms of antibiotic usage will decrease, as more protein consumed by an animal will get assimilated . Overall, *Arthrospira platensis* can be the main feed for cattle, fish, etc. |
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### Conditions with limited resources
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Also, the aforementioned features allow to use *Arthrospira platensis* in expeditions, at Arctic stations or on oil-producing platforms at sea. Production of nutritious biomass on site will the need for food supply and delivery. ||